30 Landmarks judgments of the Supreme Court of India with a Short Note

30 Landmarks judgments of the Supreme Court of India with a Short Note

  1. Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973): Established the doctrine of basic structure and limited the amending power of the Parliament.

  2. Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India (1978): Expanded the scope of Article 21 and recognized the right to travel and the right to a fair procedure.

  3. S.R. Bommai v. Union of India (1994): Affirmed federalism principles and set guidelines for invoking President's rule in states.

  4. Indira Gandhi v. Raj Narain (1975): Invalidated the election of Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister and reinforced judicial independence.

  5. Minerva Mills Ltd. v. Union of India (1980): Struck down certain provisions of the 42nd Amendment, safeguarding fundamental rights.

  6. Golaknath v. State of Punjab (1967): Held that Parliament cannot restrict the fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution.

  7. Vishaka v. State of Rajasthan (1997): Established guidelines to address sexual harassment at workplaces and recognized the right to a safe working environment.

  8. Puttaswamy (Privacy) Case (2017): Declared the right to privacy as a fundamental right under Article 21 of the Constitution.

  9. Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India (2018): Decriminalized consensual same-sex relationships, upholding the right to equality and personal autonomy.

  10. M.P. Sharma v. Satish Chandra (1954): Examined the scope of the right against self-incrimination and admissibility of evidence obtained through searches.

  11. Kharak Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh (1962): Recognized the right to privacy in relation to police surveillance.

  12. A.K. Gopalan v. State of Madras (1950): Interpreted the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 narrowly, emphasizing procedural rights.

  13. I.R. Coelho v. State of Tamil Nadu (2007): Affirmed the supremacy of the Constitution and invalidated laws inconsistent with the basic structure.

  14. Shayara Bano v. Union of India (2017): Struck down the practice of instant triple talaq, safeguarding the rights of Muslim women.

  15. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India (Aadhaar) (2018): Examined the constitutionality of Aadhaar and imposed limitations on its use.

  16. A.D.M. Jabalpur v. Shivkant Shukla (Habeas Corpus Case) (1976): Temporarily suspended the right to move the courts for enforcement of fundamental rights during the Emergency.

  17. Union Carbide Corporation v. Union of India (1989): Dealt with issues related to the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and compensation for victims.

  18. Vishnu Dutt Sharma v. Union of India (2001): Examined the scope of the power of judicial review and the validity of government policies.

  19. Tukaram v. State of Maharashtra (1979): Established guidelines for recording dying declarations as admissible evidence.

  20. Laxman Naik v. State of Orissa (1994): Clarified the principles regarding the admissibility of dying declarations in criminal cases.

  21. Olga Tellis v. Bombay Municipal Corporation (1985): Recognized the right to livelihood as a fundamental right under Article 21.

  22. D.K. Basu v. State of West Bengal (1997): Laid down guidelines to prevent custodial torture and protect the rights of arrested individuals.

  23. People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) v. Union of India (2003): Addressed issues related to encounters by police and extrajudicial killings.

  24. Common Cause v. Union of India (2018): Directed the government to formulate a scheme for passive euthanasia and living wills.

  25. State of U.P. v. Raj Narain (1975): Established the principle of transparency and accountability in elections.

  26. Lily Thomas v. Union of India (2013): Declared that convicted legislators would be disqualified from holding office.

  27. Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association v. Union of India (1993): Set guidelines for appointments of judges to the higher judiciary.

  28. Rajagopal v. State of Tamil Nadu (1994): Recognized the right to privacy in cases involving publication of personal details.

  29. R.C. Cooper v. Union of India (1970): Addressed issues related to nationalization of banks and the validity of legislation.

  30. Vishnu Dutt Sharma v. Manju Sharma (2009): Dealt with the issue of maintenance in matrimonial cases and upheld the rights of divorced wives.

Note: This is just a small selection of landmark judgments, and there are many more important cases decided by the Supreme Court of India. Each case has its own significance and impact on Indian jurisprudence.

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